TIEDEMAN AND O'HARA - ANTICIPATION/IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF CAREER COUNSELING
Tiedeman and O'Hara believed that evolving ego identity is of central importance in the career development process. Their model is centered on the process of anticipating and adjusting to career/occupational choices. The anticipation period includes exploration, crystallization, choice, and clarification. While gaining an understanding of personal and social contexts, one can then adjust to a career choice through induction, reformation, and integration. Anticipation precedes adjustment, but the internal phases can be jumbled, so the model builds on decision-making more than development.
Presenting an ongoing process of self-perception, Tiedeman and O'Hara also used Erik Erikson's life stage crises to explain differences in career development. Competence, autonomy, and agency contribute largely as self-concept and career-concept grow over time. Later variations spotlight the role of an evolving sense of self and of values in career development.
Every communication consists of three parts: me, you, and context. When any one part is absent, dysfunctional communication results. Games (i.e. rescue games, coalition games, lethal games, growth games) provide one means to improve communication.